Category: Nutrition

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Microbiome Nutrition Seerave Community

Happy #WorldMicrobiomeDay 2021! 🎉

On World Microbiome Day we celebrate all things microbial, all around the world.

Today we would like to raise special attention to one of our initiatives: The collaboration between MyFoodRepo @EPFL and Microsetta @UCSD. Together they aim to roll out a US-wide citizen science project aiming to collect as much information as possible on everyday food items we consume. This information will help to train an algorithm that enables researchers in the future to better track nutrition and give more profound insights. Therefore…

We ask all of you to contribute to the microbe revolution: the “FoodRepo Scan” app is a new way #CitizenScientists can help advance the understanding between…

Microbiome Nutrition

Long-term dietary patterns are associated with pro- inflammatory and ...

Researchers found that specific foods and nutrients correlated with species known to have mucosal protection and anti-inflammatory effects, according to data published in Gut.

“We identified dietary patterns that consistently correlate with groups of bacteria with shared functional roles in both health and disease,” Laura A. Bolte, BSc, from the department of gastroenterology and hepatology, University of Groningen and University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands, and colleagues wrote. “Moreover, specific foods and nutrients were associated with species known to infer mucosal protection and anti-inflammatory effects. We propose microbial mechanisms through which the diet affects inflammatory responses in the gut as a rationale for future intervention studies.”

Bolte and colleagues analyzed the relationship between 173 dietary factors and the microbiome of 1,425 patients from different cohorts…

Cancer Metabolites Microbiome Nutrition

Ketogenic diet and ketone bodies enhance the anticancer effects of ...

Limited experimental evidence bridges nutrition and cancer immunosurveillance. Here, the team at IGR Paris shows that ketogenic diet (KD) or its principal ketone body, 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), most specifically in an intermittent scheduling, induced T cell-dependent tumour growth retardation of aggressive tumour models.

In conditions in which anti-PD-1, alone or in combination with anti-CTLA-4, failed to reduce tumour growth in mice receiving a standard diet, KD or oral supplementation of 3HB reestablished therapeutic responses. Supplementation of KD with sucrose (which breaks ketogenesis, abolishing 3HB production) or with a pharmacological antagonist of the 3HB receptor GPR109A abolished the anti-tumour effects. Mechanistically, 3HB prevented the ICB-linked up-regulation of PD-L1 on myeloid cells while favouring the expansion of CXCR3+ T cells. KD induced compositional changes of…

Microbiome Nutrition

Landmark nutritional study PREDICT shows dietary inflammation after ...

Researchers led by the Department of Twin Research announced today the first published results from PREDICT, the largest ongoing nutritional study of its kind.

The team found a wide range of metabolic responses after eating in apparently healthy adults, and that inflammation triggered by the food we eat varies up to ten-fold.

Poor metabolic responses to food, where the body takes longer and works harder to clear the blood of fat and sugar, are linked with increased risk of conditions such as low-grade inflammatory diseases including heart disease, type 2 diabetes and obesity.

The results suggests improved health could be achieved by eating foods that are personalised to reduce inflammation after meals.

Senior researcher on the study Professor Tim Spector said:   “When it comes to weight, we’ve traditionally put a huge emphasis on factors we…

Immunity Metabolites Microbiome Nutrition

Ketogenic Diets Alter Gut Microbiome in Humans, Mice

Study Suggests Potential Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Ketone Bodies Via Effects on Gut Microbial Ecosystems

Low-carb, high-fat ketogenic diets, which have attracted public interest in recent years for their proposed benefits in lowering inflammation and promoting weight loss and heart health, have a dramatic impact on the microbes residing in the human gut, collectively referred to as the microbiome, according to a new UC San Francisco study of a small cohort of volunteer subjects.

Additional research in mice showed that so-called ketone bodies, a molecular byproduct that gives the ketogenic diet its name, directly impact the gut microbiome in ways that may ultimately suppress inflammation, suggesting evidence for potential benefits of ketone bodies as a therapy for autoimmune disorders affecting the gut.

In ketogenic diets, carbohydrate consumption…

Cancer Metabolites Microbiome Nutrition

Gut microbiome linked to efficacy of PD-1-inhibitor therapy for solid ...

In patients with solid cancers, the concentration of fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) may be a biomarker of the efficacy of the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) checkpoint inhibitors nivolumab and pembrolizumab, according to researchers in Japan.

Immune-checkpoint inhibitors have been remarkably effective across multiple cancer types, note Dr. Motoo Nomura of Kyoto University and colleagues in JAMA Network Open. However, for solid cancers the response rate to PD-1 inhibitors has been relatively low, they add.

Thus, a biomarker of efficacy “is critically needed for clinical decision-making,” they say, and the gut microbiome profile could be one such factor.

To investigate, the researchers prospectively studied 52 cancer patients with a median age of 67 years who were scheduled to be treated with nivolumab or pembrolizumab. Concentrations…

Cancer Immunity Nutrition Seerave Community

Caloric restriction mimetics enhance anti-tumor efficacy

We’re happy to announce that the Seerave Fellow Dr. Jonathan Pol published part of his work entitled “A synergistic triad of chemotherapy, immune checkpoint inhibitors, and caloric restriction mimetics eradicates tumors in mice” in the journal OncoImmunology.

The lab of Professor Guido Kroemeber has recently shown that chemotherapy with agents inducing immunogenic cell death (ICD), such as anthracyclines (e.g. mitoxantrone) or the platinum salt oxaliplatin, can be advantageously combined with fasting or caloric restriction mimetics (CRMs) to reach a better control of tumor growth (1-3). The antitumor activity of the treatment depended on immune actors, particularly on CD8+ T cells. Among these CRMs, Jonathan Pol was particularly interested in further studying hydroxycitrate (HC) and spermidine (SPD). In this follow up study, Jonathan Pol and…

Cancer Immunity Metabolites Microbiome Nutrition

Gut microbiome regulates the intestinal immune system

A new study in mice unveils the role of vitamin A in immune system regulation, a finding that could assist in developing treatments for autoimmune and inflammatory diseases as well as vitamin A deficiency.

PROVIDENCE, R.I.  — Scientists have long known that bacteria in the intestines, also known as the microbiome, perform a variety of useful functions for their hosts, such as breaking down dietary fiber in the digestive process and making vitamins K and B7.

Yet a new study unveils another useful role the microbiome plays. A team of researchers from Brown University found that in mice, the gut microbiome regulates the host’s immune system — so that rather than the host’s defense system attacking these…

Metabolites Microbiome Nutrition

Druglike molecules produced by gut bacteria can affect gut immune ...

Stanford researchers found that manipulating the gut microbe Clostridium sporogenes changed levels of molecules in the bloodstreams of mice and, in turn, affected their health.

Here’s some food for thought: When you lick your Thanksgiving plate clean this week, you’re not just feeding yourself; you’re also providing meals to the trillions of microbes that live in your gut. And if your dinner includes turkey, a notoriously rich source of the amino acid tryptophan, the gut bacterium Clostridium sporogenes will have the job of breaking down that tryptophan. Then the molecules that are produced by the microbe will flow into your bloodstream in the same way a prescription drug might, interacting with your immune system and changing the biology of the intestines.

Stanford University School of Medicine researchers…