Category: Microbiome

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Microbiome Nutrition

Long-term dietary patterns are associated with pro- inflammatory and ...

Researchers found that specific foods and nutrients correlated with species known to have mucosal protection and anti-inflammatory effects, according to data published in Gut.

“We identified dietary patterns that consistently correlate with groups of bacteria with shared functional roles in both health and disease,” Laura A. Bolte, BSc, from the department of gastroenterology and hepatology, University of Groningen and University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands, and colleagues wrote. “Moreover, specific foods and nutrients were associated with species known to infer mucosal protection and anti-inflammatory effects. We propose microbial mechanisms through which the diet affects inflammatory responses in the gut as a rationale for future intervention studies.”

Bolte and colleagues analyzed the relationship between 173 dietary factors and the microbiome of 1,425 patients from different cohorts…

Cancer Metabolites Microbiome Nutrition

Ketogenic diet and ketone bodies enhance the anticancer effects of ...

Limited experimental evidence bridges nutrition and cancer immunosurveillance. Here, the team at IGR Paris shows that ketogenic diet (KD) or its principal ketone body, 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), most specifically in an intermittent scheduling, induced T cell-dependent tumour growth retardation of aggressive tumour models.

In conditions in which anti-PD-1, alone or in combination with anti-CTLA-4, failed to reduce tumour growth in mice receiving a standard diet, KD or oral supplementation of 3HB reestablished therapeutic responses. Supplementation of KD with sucrose (which breaks ketogenesis, abolishing 3HB production) or with a pharmacological antagonist of the 3HB receptor GPR109A abolished the anti-tumour effects. Mechanistically, 3HB prevented the ICB-linked up-regulation of PD-L1 on myeloid cells while favouring the expansion of CXCR3+ T cells. KD induced compositional changes of…

Microbiome Nutrition

Landmark nutritional study PREDICT shows dietary inflammation after ...

Researchers led by the Department of Twin Research announced today the first published results from PREDICT, the largest ongoing nutritional study of its kind.

The team found a wide range of metabolic responses after eating in apparently healthy adults, and that inflammation triggered by the food we eat varies up to ten-fold.

Poor metabolic responses to food, where the body takes longer and works harder to clear the blood of fat and sugar, are linked with increased risk of conditions such as low-grade inflammatory diseases including heart disease, type 2 diabetes and obesity.

The results suggests improved health could be achieved by eating foods that are personalised to reduce inflammation after meals.

Senior researcher on the study Professor Tim Spector said:   “When it comes to weight, we’ve traditionally put a huge emphasis on factors we…

Conservation of microbial diversity Microbiome

Switzerland potential home for “Noah’s Ark” of microbes to preserve ...

A new study supported by Seerave Foundation and led by world-leading scientists finds that the creation of a “microbial Noah’s Ark” is feasible and should move forward into a pilot project phase with Switzerland one of two locations. The ultimate aim is to preserve the trillions of microbes that are essential to human health.

The Microbiota Vault would gather beneficial germs from human populations whose microbiomes are uncompromised by antibiotics, processed diets and other ill effects of modern society that have contributed to massive loss of microbial diversity and an accompanying rise in health problems. The human microbiome includes the trillions of microscopic organisms that live on and in our bodies, contributing to our health in myriad ways.

The feasibility…

Immunity Metabolites Microbiome Nutrition

Ketogenic Diets Alter Gut Microbiome in Humans, Mice

Study Suggests Potential Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Ketone Bodies Via Effects on Gut Microbial Ecosystems

Low-carb, high-fat ketogenic diets, which have attracted public interest in recent years for their proposed benefits in lowering inflammation and promoting weight loss and heart health, have a dramatic impact on the microbes residing in the human gut, collectively referred to as the microbiome, according to a new UC San Francisco study of a small cohort of volunteer subjects.

Additional research in mice showed that so-called ketone bodies, a molecular byproduct that gives the ketogenic diet its name, directly impact the gut microbiome in ways that may ultimately suppress inflammation, suggesting evidence for potential benefits of ketone bodies as a therapy for autoimmune disorders affecting the gut.

In ketogenic diets, carbohydrate consumption…

Cancer Metabolites Microbiome Nutrition

Gut microbiome linked to efficacy of PD-1-inhibitor therapy for solid ...

In patients with solid cancers, the concentration of fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) may be a biomarker of the efficacy of the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) checkpoint inhibitors nivolumab and pembrolizumab, according to researchers in Japan.

Immune-checkpoint inhibitors have been remarkably effective across multiple cancer types, note Dr. Motoo Nomura of Kyoto University and colleagues in JAMA Network Open. However, for solid cancers the response rate to PD-1 inhibitors has been relatively low, they add.

Thus, a biomarker of efficacy “is critically needed for clinical decision-making,” they say, and the gut microbiome profile could be one such factor.

To investigate, the researchers prospectively studied 52 cancer patients with a median age of 67 years who were scheduled to be treated with nivolumab or pembrolizumab. Concentrations…

Immunity Microbiome

Gut bacteria’s interactions with immune system mapped

Cell atlas could reveal why some gut diseases affect specific areas

The first detailed cell atlas of the immune cells and gut bacteria within the human colon has been created by researchers. The study from the Wellcome Sanger Institute and collaborators revealed different immune niches, showing changes in the bacterial microbiome and immune cells throughout the colon.  As part of the Human Cell Atlas initiative to map every human cell type, these results will enable new studies into diseases which affect specific regions of the colon, such as ulcerative colitis and colorectal cancer.

Published today in Nature Immunology, this study revealed the interaction between the microbiome and our immune cells. These results form…

Cancer Microbiome

Microbial DNA in patient blood may be tell-tale sign of cancer

When Gregory Poore was a freshman in college, his otherwise healthy grandmother was shocked to learn that she had late-stage pancreatic cancer. The condition was diagnosed in late December. She died in January.

“She had virtually no warning signs or symptoms,” Poore said. “No one could say why her cancer wasn’t detected earlier or why it was resistant to the treatment they tried.” As Poore came to learn through his college studies, cancer has traditionally been considered a disease of the human genome — mutations in our genes allow cells to avoid death, proliferate and form tumors.

But when Poore saw a 2017 study in Science that showed how microbes invaded a majority of pancreatic cancers and were able to break down the main…

Cancer Immunity Microbiome

Human microbiome-derived bacterial strains with antitumor activity

Vedanta Biosciences, a clinical-stage company developing a new category of therapies for immune-mediated diseases based on rationally defined consortia of human microbiome-derived bacteria, today announced a publication in Nature reporting a newly discovered mechanism underlying antitumor immunity that involves human microbiota-driven induction of interferon-gamma-producing (IFNy+) CD8+ T cell accumulation in the gut and tumors.

Led by Vedanta’s scientific co-founder Kenya Honda, M.D., Ph.D., of Keio University School of Medicine, the research also led to the identification and selection of a defined consortium of human microbiome-derived bacterial strains that harnesses this mechanism of antitumor activity and cooperatively potentiates responses to checkpoint inhibitor therapies and immune challenges in general. Based on this research, Vedanta is advancing VE800, a proprietary clinical candidate designed to enhance immune responses…

Cancer Immunity Metabolites Microbiome Nutrition

Gut microbiome regulates the intestinal immune system

A new study in mice unveils the role of vitamin A in immune system regulation, a finding that could assist in developing treatments for autoimmune and inflammatory diseases as well as vitamin A deficiency.

PROVIDENCE, R.I.  — Scientists have long known that bacteria in the intestines, also known as the microbiome, perform a variety of useful functions for their hosts, such as breaking down dietary fiber in the digestive process and making vitamins K and B7.

Yet a new study unveils another useful role the microbiome plays. A team of researchers from Brown University found that in mice, the gut microbiome regulates the host’s immune system — so that rather than the host’s defense system attacking these…

Cancer Immunity Microbiome

Gut bacteria influence the progression of multiple myeloma

By interacting with the immune system, some types of gut bacteria can influence the progression of multiple myeloma, a tumor that affects the bone marrow causing pain, anemia and bone fragility.

The discovery, limited so far to the animal model of the disease, is published today in Nature Communications by the team of Matteo Bellone, head of Cellular immunology Unit at IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele. The study, supported by AIRC – The Italian Association for Cancer Research – is among the first to trace a direct link between intestinal microbiota and a tumor located in a different organ, thus demonstrating the capability of these bacteria to interact with the whole organism. Moreover, researchers identified a biological marker that could…